Twilio, Web Hooks, and ngrok

The concept of a web hook or webhook has come up a couple of times in passing:

  • Travis uses a GitHub webhook, in order to learn when a new commit is pushed to a repository.
  • The Twilio → MQTT Gateway uses a webhook to learn when a Twilio phone number receives an SMS.

Webhooks are a means of communication between multiple processes, generally running on different machines (or “nodes”).1

In addition to receiving events from Github and Twilio, webhooks allow you to receive events from a number of other services. Examples include Slack, Facebook Messenger, IFTTT, and Zapier.

If you’re familiar with web applications, you may know about HTTP requests. (If not, now’s a good time to try the web app toolbox.) Usually it’s your browser that makes an HTTP request, when you type an URL into its address bar. Webhooks are an (ab?)use of that mechanism, to send data from one server to another. A webhook is just an HTTP POST to a route (path) on your web app, with data that depends on the service providing the webhook.

Using a webhook

Connecting a service to webhook — we’ll use Twilio as an example — requires these steps:

  1. Implement a web application, with a route (e.g. /sms_callback) that handles the incoming data. If you haven’t implemented a web application before, or don’t know what a “route” is in this context, consider the web apps toolbox.
  2. Deploy your application to the cloud, so that it has a public domain name (e.g. (Your application needs to run in the cloud so that the Twilio can find it in order to make an HTTP PUT request to its route. Services in the cloud can’t reach your laptop.)
  3. Configure Twilio with the URL to your service. This URL combines the schema (http or https), the domain name, and the route (or URL path). In our example, it’s

The format of the incoming data, and the mechanism for configuring the event publisher, depend on the publishing service. For Twilio, here’s how to programmatically set the webhook that is called when a specific number receives an SMS message.

from import Client

number, = client.incoming_phone_numbers \

The next section replaces step #2 with something that is more efficient during development.

Why you can’t connect a webhook to your laptop

The edit/deploy-to-web/test cycle that’s required to test a webhook using steps (1-2) above is slow. It’s generally faster to do as much on your development machine as possible, before you kick it off to the cloud. Working locally also gives you access to more debugging tools. You can use a debugger, if that’s your jam, instead of adding print or other logging statements, pushing, and then looking at server logs.[^3]

Here’s what you’d like to do:

This doesn’t work, because the Twilio servers can’t make an inbound connection to your laptop. The actual picture looks more like this:

(Even if there weren’t an explicit firewall, devices connected to an intranet don’t generally have addresses that work on the internet. This was originally a technical limitation, that people now count on for security. See also NAT.)

Using ngrok to avoid deploying between tests

ngrok is a freemium service that makes a web server running on your laptop accessible to code running in the cloud. This is perfect for webhooks2. Launch your server (python, launch ngrok ngrok http 3000, and configure Twilio with a URL based on the hostname that ngrok prints out. Now you can test the code before you deploy it.

This works because the (NAT part of the) firewall keeps devices on the internet from making a connection to your laptop, but it doesn’t (generally) prevent your laptop from connecting to outside devices. Your laptop can open a connection to ngrok’s servers; once this connection is open, it can send information back to you. In this case, the server — which is on the open web, and which Twilio can therefore find — translates POSTs into messages that it sends to the ngrok program running on your development machine, which turns them back into POSTs.

ngrok gives you a new public hostname each time you run it (unless you pay for a reserved subdomain). It’s therefore handy to script setting the webhook callback URL; for example, using the Twilio code above.

More references about ngrok:

As an alternatively to ngrok, you could run a reverse ssh proxy on a server running outside your firewall — for example, a Droplet, or an EC2 micro instance. This gives you a permanant public IP address or domain name. It’s particular cost-effective if you already have an server running in the cloud. This will not, however, give you an https:// address without further setup, and that’s something you need in order to work with Twilio (and some other services that call webhooks).

Pro Tip: Using curl and httpie to call your webhook directly

The curl command line tool is useful for sending requests to your web server, so that you don’t have to induce the service that calls your webhook to do this each time you want to test your code. You can read up on curl on its site or in Google; however, many of the documentation pages for service-specific webhooks also show the equivalent curl command.

httpie is a friendlier, more expressive alternative to curl. Postman (macOS, Linux, and Windows) and Paw (macOS only) are commercial alternatives.

Remember that you can also write a unit tests that invoke your application’s webhook route. Using curl and httpie is faster than sending an SMS each time you test a change, but unit tests — especially with pytest-watch — are faster yet.

Further Reading

  1. Webhooks are an instance of the publish/subscribe pattern. Webhooks are generally used when the publisher and subscriber are controlled by different entities (Travis and GitHub, or Twilio and Olin). They require that the subscriber (Travis, our Twilio MQTT) run as a web server. Unlike other instances of publish/subscribe, such as RabbitMQ/MQTT, the webhook publisher and subscriber don’t need common access to a shared resources. This simplifies configuration and security. 

  2. Another use case is browsing a web app that’s served from your laptop, on your phone.